pukusa [Siberian onion] pukusakina [Flaccid anemone] makayo [Butterbur sprout] korkoni [Butterbur] sikerpekina [Eastern skunk cabbage] sikerpekina [Eastern skunk cabbage] leaves and stems (right) turep [Heartleaf lily] sikerpeni [Amur cork tree] fruit Dried sikerpeni [Amur cork tree] fruit pekanpe [Water chestnut] Hundreds of plants were eaten and used for medicinal purposes in the Ainu tradition. The stems and leaves of Siberian onion, flaccid anemone, butterbur, and eastern skunk cabbage, and the bulbs of cardiocrinum and Corydalis fumariifolia were gathered in Tokachi during the spring and summer. In the summer and fall, the fruits of walnuts, Amur cork tree, crimson glory vine, water chestnuts, and hogpeanut, and the bulbs of jack-in-the-pulpit, and mushrooms were gathered. turep [Heartleaf lily] bulb toma [Corydalis fumariifolia] flower and tuber rawraw [Jack-in-the-pulpit] tuber ninum [Japanese walnut fruit] eha [Hogpeanut] seeds underground Women extracting water from itaya (mono maple) trees Meiji Shoki Ainu Fuzoku Emaki (“Picture Scroll of Ainu Customs in the Early Meiji Period”) by Hokuyo Nishikawa Hakodate City Central Library Collection Ainu Language in Use The Ainu Language プクサ アフンパ ワ アサッケ。 pukusa a-hunpa wa a-satke. Translation The Siberian onions are chopped up and dried.